Wednesday, June 19, 2019

thcv cannabinoid

Cannabis has over 100 cannabinoids that scientists have been able to isolate from the plant. The two most people are aware of, THC and CBD, have different specific effects on the human body. What about the other cannabinoids? Well, let’s take a look at THCV, a very interesting one indeed. It’s important to note that THCV is found in trace amounts in most cannabis strains, but of course can be isolated chemically or boosted with breeding techniques. Also, THCV boils at a higher temperature than THC, so if you’re using a vape you’ll need to turn up the heat to access its properties. All that said, there are promising effects shown from THCV which we’ll look at here, as well as where you’re more likely to find the cannabinoid in practice.

So what is it, really? THCV is known as an analogue of THC, just a few carbon atoms away from everyone’s favorite psychoactive cannabinoid. The first thing that might come to mind is, “does it get you high?” but the science is a little more complicated here. Yes, it can activate the CB1 receptors that cause you to get high, but only in high doses. In lower doses it seems to inhibit those receptors and act more like CBD, which doesn’t get you high. Weird, right? If you do get buzzed from THCV it’s supposed to be more clear-headed and last a shorter time. But the psychoactive effects aren’t what makes this cannabinoid so interesting.

Here are a few things that research shows THCV could help with:

  • Weight loss. Yep, you may have heard of “skinny weed” or strains that don’t give you the munchies? THCV appears to work more as an appetite suppressant than its big sister THC.
  • Diabetes. Perhaps related, THCV seems to help with insulin resistance and regulate blood sugar levels.
  • Panic! Similar to CBD, THCV can dull the anxiety some feel when they partake in high-THC concentration strains.

There is promising research indicating therapy for Alzheimer’s and osteoporosis, but so far the science is still in progress on these.

As we said earlier, THCV is only found in trace amounts in most strains, but there are some with higher concentrations than others. And of course, it’s quite likely that with more knowledge of the power of this cannabinoid that breeders may introduce newer strains to better emphasize it. African sativas seem to have the most THCV right now. You can also ask your budtender for lab-tested strains to ensure what you’re getting has as much THCV as you can get. Until then, here are a few strains we know have higher-than-normal amounts of THCV:

  • Doug’s Varin. This was specifically bred to have more THCV than others.
  • Pineapple Purps was also bred to have more THCV.
  • Durban Poison is probably the most commonly found high-THCV strain around, and it has been cross-bred with other strains, like Cherry Pie, to impart more of the cannabinoid.
  • Red Congolese is another African sativa worth a look.
  • Willie Nelson is notable due to the legend that Nelson himself bought an entire crop once. It’s supposed to be great for mornings, helping with anxiety and depression.

Again, ask your budtender if there are any new strains worth looking at that contain elevated THCV levels, or any new products that emphasize this fascinating and complex cannabinoid. It’s just another one of the many useful and different compounds being used for therapeutic uses.

entourage effect

As CBD (cannabidiol) products have exploded onto markets across the U.S., there’s naturally a heaping amount of skepticism about its legitimate medical uses. CBD products are seemingly everywhere, and now that hemp has been legalized there’s a growing misconception that CBD is for medicine and THC is for “fun.” But part of the reason CBD is now available is because a number of patients who had legitimate uses pushed to raise awareness of its benefits, and argued that ultra-low THC amounts in hemp products wouldn’t have the recreational uses high-concentration THC products do. In fact, cannabis used to have very little THC until breeders started creating strains with ever-higher concentrations (no pun intended). What we’re finding is that there’s a sort of middle ground, or “sweet spot” where THC and CBD can combine to become even more effective for treating certain disorders. This combination is known as “the entourage effect” because the THC and CBD are greater than the sum of their parts.

Project CBD has a great reference for the skeptics out there who have maybe seen CBD products in stores and called them “snake oil” or something similar.  What’s interesting about this list is it explains how THC and CBD work together, like a power couple. The entourage effect looks not at individual compounds and how they work alone — long the practice of pharmaceutical companies and government regulators — but how the many chemicals in cannabis can combine to provide specific benefits. If you like fruit punch, wouldn’t fruit punch soda be tastier? OK, it’s not quite that simple. But the synergistic effect of multiple compounds used together is hard to deny.

In fact, cannabis strains contain hundreds of compounds from terpenes to cannabinoids and the many combinations in different quantities can have different effects on different people. The FDA and big pharmaceutical companies tend to look at individual compounds, not their synergistic effects. That’s why doctors have to be extra careful when prescribing pills to avoid drugs having a detrimental effect on patients. If one drug causes a patient’s kidneys to work less effectively and another causes calcium to leach out of the bones, that patient could wind up with horrible kidney stones. With cannabis, it’s a completely different story. So far no one has found a detrimental combination of the cannabinoids and terpenes and other compounds. No one has suffered complications from mixing THC and CBD — quite the opposite, in fact.

In fact, while CBD products are effective, and THC products are effective, the two together work even better. Whole plant products are optimal, as they can address a range of symptoms by combining with our natural cannabinoid receptors in novel ways. Perhaps the best example of this entourage effect is from this 2012 study that shows patients who tended to get paranoid with THC products felt far less so when CBD was also in the mix. Even this highly skeptical Scientific American article buries a valid indicator of the entourage effect in its lengthy takedown, noting that the short-term memory impact of THC can be lessened if the terpene pinene is added to the mix. The ultimate problem is that there hasn’t been enough scientific study thanks to continuing federal narcotics scheduling that makes it impossible for most universities and even private researchers to do more studies.

Still, the notion that combining multiple compounds for specific therapeutic use isn’t unknown to medicine, it just happens to be less accepted in Western medicine. Some argue a better term would be “therapeutic ensemble” to indicate that specific formulations will have specific effects. That’s the middle ground between “throw the whole plant at it” and “isolate just this one compound” and there’s hope that further study will show exactly how doctors can harness all the therapeutic uses of cannabis in the future.

cannabis addiction increasing

Before one can answer the very important question asking whether or not marijuana addiction is currently on the rise, the whole idea of “addiction,” needs to be clearly defined. When someone most commonly thinks of addiction or an addict, they picture a person who is so obsessed with something that they are unable to stop. Others will argue that in order for something to be addictive, it has to be harmful. This gets complicated when it comes to a possible marijuana addiction, because there are little to no negative health consequences to using cannabis.

Many people who have used marijuana in the past will testify that they quit their smoking habit with no struggle. Since there is typically not a painful “detox” or “withdrawal” period that is usually associated with other drug addictions, it can be argued that an excessive use of marijuana does not qualify for an actual addiction. Typically when someone is trying to halt the use of harmful drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and even alcohol, there are many negative physical and mental side effects that can hinder the process or even force a person to relapse and go back to their addictive state. When a person is attempting to stop using marijuana they most typically experience moodiness and irritability.

On the other hand, there are people that will claim they have or currently do suffer from marijuana addiction. Despite the low health risks, some individuals do experience negative mental and emotional side effects. There have been instances where a person has felt that they truly could not stop using marijuana no matter how hard they try. The public opinion on whether or not marijuana addiction is considered an actual addiction varies greatly.

Related content: Why we’re wrong about addiction

So before becoming informed on whether or not marijuana addiction is on the rise, is it important to break down what that really means and how you personally define addiction. The National Institute on Drug Abuse, which is a part of the National Institute of Health, calls it, “Marijuana Use Disorder,” and says that 30 percent of people who use marijuana develop some level of this. The NIDA classifies marijuana use disorder as a dependence on the drug rather than an addiction to the drug due to the lack of a withdrawal period.

Denver has reported that marijuana addiction is not only real, it is getting worse. Patrick Fehling, an addiction therapist in Colorado told the Denver Post that one out of every eleven people that uses marijuana becomes addicted. CBS News reports that around 15 percent of Colorado residents use marijuana, coming in third place behind Vermont at almost 16 percent and Alaska at over 16 percent.

Despite the evidence that does show that small numbers of marijuana users do become at least dependent on the drug, its popularity is only growing. Over half of the States in the U.S. already allow for the legal consumption of medical marijuana, and eleven states (including D.C.) allow the use of marijuana for recreational purposes as well. When more substantial research is done, maybe there will be a larger discussion on the issue of marijuana addiction.

can cannabis motivate you to exercise

There’s a stereotype around cannabis use that implies it will make you lazy, or at least demotivated to enjoy physical exercise. Of course, phenomena like couchlock are real, and Indica strains are indeed bred to relax the body and mind. But there’s now evidence that shows the default assumption that cannabis makes you less likely to enjoy some exercise is just that: An assumption. This new research shows that cannabis may make exercise more enjoyable.

The study, published in the medical journal Frontiers in Medical Health, used an online survey to ask hundreds of cannabis users about their use and athletic activity. Over 80% of the respondents noted an improved experience while exercising. The respondents who reported having a more enjoyable workout tended to be young men, according to the survey.

This doesn’t necessarily mean cannabis will motivate you to begin to exercise, of course. Instead, it shows that if you’re inclined to exercise, cannabis can improve the overall experience of doing so. The survey also indicates that those who partook were more likely to exercise more, and that it helped their post-workout recovery. Yes, there’s a motivational aspect to this because if you do exercise on cannabis you may enjoy it more, which could lead to more exercise. In fact, half of the respondents say it did increase their motivation to exercise more.

Nevertheless, the factors that motivate someone to exercise at all are extremely varied and beyond the scope of this study. It could be a doctor warning someone of dire consequences if they don’t get to the gym, for instance. Or, it could simply be someone who has maybe “let themselves go” and now wants to get fit. Further study is needed to understand if cannabis can motivate people to exercise given the many reasons why someone may start — or stop.

This study does help erode the notion that cannabis is inherently demotivational, however. It also shows that cannabis use can improve the experience of a great many activities in life, including exercise. If that news spreads, it could very well motivate more people to exercise. The researchers involved with the story admit that even though it’s possible that increased enjoyment of exercise due to cannabis use could lead to more exercise overall, there’s more research to be done to confirm that theory. As with much cannabis research taking place in states where legalization has taken hold, we’re only beginning to discover all the benefits that result when citizens are allowed to choose cannabis for recreation or medication.

The researchers say: “This study represents an important step in clarifying cannabis use with exercise among adult users in states with legal cannabis markets, and provides guidance for future research directions.”

microdosing weed

There was a time when microdosing weed would have been unthinkable. Back in the days of peak prohibition, “getting high” for the first time often meant overindulging. Movies portrayed characters who handled large amounts of marijuana, with perhaps one of the most notable moments being a giant joint smoked onscreen in “Up In Smoke” from 1978. Today cannabis users are a bit more sophisticated. OK, a lot more sophisticated. Never mind the wide range of ways to ingest cannabis, what we’re seeing now is increasing sophistication in the dosages, too. That’s where microdosing comes in. It’s a term you may have heard in relation to psychedelics, but what does it mean for marijuana?

The fact is that THC concentrations have been trending upwards for a generation or more. But as therapeutic uses for cannabis continue to grow, there’s a trend to be more aware of just how much the body needs to cause certain effects. This trend towards smaller quantities of cannabis taken over time is called microdosing, and it can help reap medical benefits without the resulting “high” commonly associated with many modern strains. It makes sense, really. A potent strain may have specific benefits for certain medical issues, but instead of a strong dose at the beginning of the day which could leave the imbiber slightly incapacitated, the lesser dosage throughout the day helps even things out. The classic example involves smoking so much you become anxious, when you’re trying to reduce anxiety.

Technically a microdose is the lowest dosage you can get that will create an effect, but that effect is so subtle it’s hard to perceive. Chemotherapy comes close to this idea, in that the drugs and radiation treatments from chemo could, in larger amounts, kill a person. But they are carefully controlled so as to kill only the cancer, not the patient (although the patient can get sick from the chemo). The goal with microdosing is to benefit from the therapy without causing issues with side effects — like the feeling of being high.

You might also compare microdosing weed to a time-release capsule. Aspirin and many other drugs are available in time-release formulas because the dosage may be so strong as to cause adverse effects. With aspirin, too much can cause upset stomach and heartburn. A time-released dosage of aspirin over several hours is less likely to cause these issues but still provides the pain relief needed. While microdosing cannabis is relatively new, the idea is quite old.

Does it work? Leafly details the experience of a few people who have tried microdosing cannabis with great benefit. However, the article notes that individuals vary in tolerances and receptiveness to various strains, which means the best idea is to start with low doses to begin with, and work your way up from there. It has been suggested that you start with 5mg, then going up from there. Some say 10mg, but it’s quite variable. Either way, the advice is pretty simple: start low and steadily work your way to where you need to be. If you end up “feeling high” you know you’ve hit a threshold.

Of course the other big question isn’t just how much, but HOW you actually ingest the cannabis. Smoking is harder to measure than other methods, like taking edibles. Even so, only a few companies are creating edibles with microdose-levels of THC. That could change as the practice becomes more widely known. Right now there’s a bit of a lack of product when it comes to microdosing marijuana, but that could change as more patients seek therapeutic uses over recreational uses.

cannabis sleep

Although there are strains of cannabis that will have a greater or lesser effect on how easily you get to sleep, there’s some debate about how it affects your sleep itself. There have been studies that show smoking can help you get to sleep faster, and honestly the plant has been used as a sleep aid for centuries. So we know cannabis can make you sleepy, but does it help you sleep better?

There are two components in rating the effectiveness of sleep: the duration and the quality. You’ve no doubt heard everyone recommend eight full hours of sleep, although science shows there is some variation here. There’s a small percentage of the population that can truly skip an hour or two, but that’s about it. Sleep is utterly essential to our survival and mental well-being, as Randy Gardner found out years ago when he stayed awake for 11 days straight — a record he never fully recovered from. The good news is, cannabis can prolong sleep and help you get to sleep faster.

However, researchers have found that cannabis can disrupt REM sleep. There are essentially two phases of sleep that account for the restful sleep your mind and body require to keep going every day. One phase is deep sleep, which cannabis promotes. Deep sleep helps the brain sort and store all the stuff it encountered through the day. This is why cannabis is great if you have insomnia, as sufferers only sleep a few hours and the brain has a harder time with memory recall (among other issues) as a result.

Now, REM sleep comes from the “rapid eye movements” seen under the eyelids during this phase. We’re still unlocking the mysteries of sleep, but REM sleep is usually when we dream. Since cannabis can shorten the amount we’re in the REM phase, it can also reduce dreaming. There are actually four phases of REM sleep, but scientists believe overall it’s needed to help regulate the body’s temperature and neurotransmitter levels. All the chemicals that are used during the day to help you make decisions need replenishing and something that can happen is it can become harder to make decisions later in the day. This is called “decision fatigue” and you can imagine it gets much worse with less REM sleep.

The good news here is that your body can “catch up” on REM sleep provided you eventually get a full night’s rest and your brain goes through all the necessary phases. Cannabis isn’t the only compound to deter REM, as nicotine and alcohol will do the same, as will some medicines.

Speaking of medicine, it’s the complex nature of the cannabinoids and their interaction in our bodies that makes this research a little uneven so far. For example, since cannabis is prescribed for PTSD, at what level is it aiding sleep versus the effects of the trauma? Trauma can induce insomnia, as can chemical interactions and a dozen other factors. Figuring out which cannabinoids work best with sleep is what researchers are starting to figure out.

What you need to know is the three well-known cannabinoids in cannabis will impact your rest in different ways. CBD is often used to help with alertness, but it can help relax the body enough to become restful. Cannabinol (CBN) appears to have a strong sedative effect. When combined with THC, CBN may even multiply this effect. But CBN is found in aged cannabis, whereas THC is more prevalent. THC reduces dreaming and REM, as mentioned above, even though it  may offer sleep-inducing effects.

Finally, the terpenes in cannabis that give each strain its particular smell and taste also play a role in sleep. Perhaps the most promising is Linalool, also found in lavender, a plant well-known for its calming properties. Linalool increases adenosine, which is a sedating hormone that helps guide our body into restful sleep.

The effects of cannabis on your sleep are still being understood, but sleep itself is a bit of a mystery to us. We can’t live without sleep, however, and it seems cannabis can help those who have trouble getting enough.

couchlock causes effects

What is couchlock? It’s pretty simple: You’re too stoned to get off the couch. Or the bed, or wherever you’re enjoying cannabis that hits you so hard you feel like a wet weighted blanket just landed on you. Couchlock occurs when you’ve either ingested too much cannabis at once and the effects are a bit overpowering, or a particular strain hits you particularly hard one day. Let’s look at some of the specifics as to why you get couchlock, and what you can do about it.

Indica strains are particularly noted for their “sinking into the couch” feeling. That’s why the mnemonic device for remembering the overall effect of these strains is “indica couch.” But there are sativa strains that can be potent enough to sedate you to the point of knocking you off your feet. Some people want this, of course, but it can also be a surprise effect of especially potent strains that take a little bit to impact your system. That creeping effect can cause you to overindulge that session, causing you to be drowsier than intended.

While there isn’t a consensus on what causes couchlock, there are indications the terpene myrcene causes the sedative effect in your body. Some say lower levels of myrcene will give you a feeling of euphoria and energy, but at levels higher than .04% will begin to have a sedative effect.

Now, if you feel couchlock coming, one way to avoid it is to make some coffee or a sugary drink, or get some food in your system. Rest for about 15 minutes or so and try to enjoy it! Many people actually enjoy couchlock as a way to reset, or force their body to rest when sick.

A good CBD strain can also counteract the effects of couchlock, so if you have some handy try smoking your way out of the sluggishness. Why? Research shows CBD blocks the CB1 receptors in the brain, which reduces the effects of some other cannabinoids — like THC.

After some rest, maybe a little CBD, get up and stretch or even take a walk out in the sunshine to get your energy levels back. It’s possible you might still have to “ride it out” for a bit, but take note of what triggered the occurrence. It could be a strain in particular that just hits you especially hard. It’s good to know, whether you want to avoid the feeling of couchlock in the future, or embrace it.

cannabis allergies symptoms

Allergies are just one of those facts of life for millions of people. Nobody wants allergies, of course, which is why there’s a ton of medicine to reduce or even eliminate allergies. While pollen is definitely a problem for some, male plants (which produce pollen in cannabis plants) are not typically ingested. The female plants are generally isolated so buds can form without seeds, which also increases THC content. So cannabis allergies and their symptoms are a little more complicated than your run-of-the-mill tree pollen or mold allergy.

Since cannabis is ingested in many different ways, allergic reactions may or may not happen depending on the combination of cannabinoids involved. Unfortunately, it appears THC itself may be an allergen. One of the reasons there are more reported cases of allergic reactions to various cannabis preparations? Simple numbers. More people are enjoying it in many more different ways than ever before, which is leading to more discoveries about how it interacts with our bodies.

Some researchers rounded up what we know about cannabis allergies, and did find that there are reactions not dissimilar to pollen-type allergies. In particular, smoke is made of tiny particles just like pollen and has a similar response in the body, causing runny nose, coughing and sneezing (among other symptoms). These symptoms may also appear if exposed to the pollen. Cases of allergic asthma have been reported, but seem to be more prevalent with pollen exposure. However, it’s also important to note that some of these symptoms could be caused by mold on cannabis. Mold isn’t inherent to cannabis, but it can grow if stored for too long or in a damp environment, etc. Still, some may have reactions to both THC and mold. Any gardener will tell you what a pest mold can be on plants!

Cannabis isn’t just ingested, it’s put on the skin as well. Long before decriminalization began in the U.S., hemp lotions were available. Hemp seed products abound, including items you can eat. Depending on the severity of the allergy, those sensitive to cannabis have reported everything from hives to trouble breathing or speaking. Unfortunately, cannabis allergies aren’t usually detected until someone has a reaction.

This is why if you’re concerned about this allergy, it’s best to get to an allergist. The common method for detecting allergies these days is doing a skin prick test, which will cause a small welt on the skin when an extract of the potential offender is deftly placed in the upper layers of the skin. It’s not an invasive procedure, but a lack of standardization can yield varying results. Still, a trained professional is your best bet for narrowing down what’s causing a reaction.

So what can you do if you have an allergy to cannabis? One allergist in Colorado documented his experiences, but they mostly boil down to the same prescription for hay fever and similar sufferers. If possible, avoid exposure (especially high concentrations of THC), or take medicines that you’d take for allergies. Nasal sprays, decongestants, antihistamines and the like can be used. Interestingly, in Dr. Silvers’ report he noted that one patient had a severe reaction when he smoked wax. At first, it was thought the high THC content was the culprit, but it was determined to be more likely a contaminant in the wax itself.

As with most medical issues, this is a complex topic that’s still being researched. What we know is cannabis allergy and symptoms are pretty similar to other allergies in their range of severity and cure. Since there’s no easy fix, individuals will have to talk to their doctor about what is best for their needs. Even so, the allergy appears to be rare among cannabis consumers overall.

cannabis affect memory

It’s a well-worn joke that smoking cannabis negatively impacts your memory. As early as January 2019, 60’s legend David Crosby tweeted, “If smoking marijuana causes short-term memory loss, what does smoking marijuana do?” Decades of comedy bits and musical works have reinforced this notion, but is it true? No one can remember! Kidding aside, “memory” as a construct isn’t so easy to pin down as you might think, which means the impact of cannabis is a bit more complicated than perceived short-term memory loss.

What Is Memory?

The thing is, unlike cognition (how we think), memory is harder to measure. There are many types of memory, too. Add to this complicated mess the fact that our focus, or lack thereof, can impact memories. And memory has two sides: making memory and recalling a memory. So when someone says “smoking hurts your memory” it’s hard to know exactly what that means.

When talking about cannabis, we’re focusing on the short-term recall and longer-term memory creation aspects in your brain. And yes, cannabis does affect your memory in some particular ways.

Making Memories

Like anything that alters your consciousness, cannabis can impair cognition, which can impact making memories. In other words, smoking and trying to speak a new language is maybe not the most effective way to learn. This is also because THC can affect the hippocampus, and cause portions of the brain to sort of get out of sync. The effects are temporary, although long term effects were suggested by one study.

So, in the short term, it can be more difficult for the brain to make and recall memories when smoking. The good news for regular cannabis enthusiasts is that frequent use may create a tolerance to short term memory problems seen when smoking. Even casual users will find the memory impairment is short-lived, wearing off in 24-48 hours.

Memory Recall

What about memory recall after years of cannabis use? One medical study found that daily consumption for five or more years did lead to slightly lower verbal recall scores. However, the “lower score” was only slightly less than those who didn’t indulge. As for cognition, the study showed no impact on focus or processing speed — so thinking wasn’t diminished over time with constant cannabis use.

Perhaps most important is the role cannabis can play in therapeutic uses for those with PTSD. We’re only just beginning to unlock the possibilities here, but preclinical research shows promise when using THC and CBD for treatment of mental trauma.

Future Research

With time, we’ll have more data not only about how cannabis affects the brain, but how it can be used to treat specific maladies. Our understanding of memory and cognition is also an area that continues to move quickly, which impacts cannabis research as well. One promising area is combining THC and CBD, which could lessen any negative impacts on memory due to THC alone. Still, as more studies are conducted and more research on the many compounds in cannabis goes on, we hope to better understand the risks and uses of this versatile plant.

cannabis cottonmouth dry throat

Our understanding of cottonmouth has changed over the years. Once upon a time, it was thought dry mouth, or “the pasties”, was caused by just the smoke irritating nasal, mouth and throat membranes. Now that cannabis is being studied more closely and there are more ways to take it in, we’re learning simple smoke inhalation wasn’t really the cause. Thanks, science!

Sure, smoking anything can irritate oral membranes, but edibles and vapes also cause cottonmouth so it’s not the method, but the effect of cannabinoid receptors and cannabis interacting with our nervous system. Research on the phenomenon only began in the early 2000s, but we’re now able to understand why it happens and what you can do about it. By the way, scientists call cottonmouth “xerostomia.”

Cannabinoids, the active compounds in cannabis, interact with the human endocannabinoid system in specific ways. Our endocannabinoid system is connected to the brain, and when cannabinoids interact, all sorts of things can happen. You already know some of these (the high), but other bodily processes can be impacted — like producing saliva. Why? Because cannabinoid receptors are found on the submandibular glands, which live at the bottom of your mouth and produce about 70% of our saliva.

In a 2006 study, it was found that by giving a cannabinoid called anandamide to rats, the compound would attach to receptors and tell the body to produce fewer compounds needed to produce saliva. After all, the body communicates through chemical signals. In this case, one of the many cannabinoids in cannabis tells the body “don’t make as much spit!” Rude, perhaps, but that’s how the body works.

The very reason cannabis is shown to have numerous medical benefits is the same reason why your mouth dries up. It would be overkill to try and block anandamide with pills, but there are things you can do to help with cottonmouth.

• Water or light herbal teas can help. Water is of course best, but it’ll just hydrate you from the inside-out. Herbal tea (not darker teas that contain tannins which could further dry your mouth out, like coffee) can also help if the thought of just chugging water sounds unpleasant.

• Chewing gum or sour candy. The trick is to kickstart those saliva glands despite what the anandamide is telling your body, right? A stick of gum can help, or anything like a lollipop. Sour candies that use “sour sugar” will also spur your saliva glands better than purely sugar-based sweets.

• Cough medicine. Yeah, taking a bit of this may seem weird, but consider oral demulcents, aka cough drops, which coat the mucus membranes with a moist film that will resist cotton mouth.