Thursday, June 20, 2019


If one group did more than any other to create the legal marijuana industry, it was without a doubt the people behind the black market that came before it: ordinary, everyday drug dealers. But now, many of these people say, they’re being shut out of a business that wouldn’t exist without them.

In an interview with The Guardian newspaper, 33-year-old San Francisco native Joshua Weitz said he went from dealing weed at 14 to planning his own legal delivery shop in his early 20s. He applied for a California license under the name Mirage Medicinal.

“You get this sense of a real supreme accomplishment,” Weitz said. “It felt so good to build something.”

Joshua Weitz
Joshua Weitz does not know if he’ll ever be able to work in the industry.

He might have made it happen, too, but he was pulled over in 2014 during a road trip through Texas and convicted of felony cannabis possession. Just before Mirage Medicinal was set to open its doors, Weitz was slapped with a criminal record that prevents him from owning a marijuana business in California.

His sister, Nina Parks, ran Mirage while he served time in prison, and he still consults for her on the business. But it’s unclear whether he’ll ever be allowed to run the company, which he created to serve a legal market.

Drug war victims excluded from industry

And Weitz isn’t alone. Marijuana reform advocates are increasingly pointing to the fact that the industry and the lawmakers who regulate it routinely exclude former drug dealers and illicit pot farmers – the very people who built the industry and are best-suited to run it. Victims of the drug war themselves, they are barred from taking advantage of the reforms inspired by the injustices they endured.

“The irony for me is that we’re going to keep out everybody who has been convicted of transporting or selling narcotics from the business of transporting and selling narcotics, which is essentially what you call colonialism,” Weitz said. “We’re going to land on your land, use all of your resources, and you can’t be involved in profiting from it. It’s totally insane.”

Growing movement to allow ex-dealers to participate

Medical MarijuanaThis state of affairs is true in every state where cannabis is legal for recreational use, but there is a growing movement to lift barriers that prevent ex-dealers from working in the legal marijuana trade. Some advocates are pushing further, actively encouraging former dealers to open pot shops.

The result of laws that bar people like Weitz from growing or selling cannabis is that small-scale mom and pop operators are shut out while wealthy businesses – usually owned and operated by white men – dominate the market and vacuum up profits. It is people of color, already targeted by the drug war, who bear the brunt of the consequences.

This could change if activists can successfully reform laws that strip convicted felons of their civil rights, including the right to work in the legal marijuana market. A national campaign to do that is already underway, but it will likely be a long time before entrepreneurs like Weitz can claim a rightful share of the industry they built.


America’s tech industry has opened yet another door to the future of legal marijuana.

Microsoft announced in June that its specialized Azure Government cloud platform would welcome cannabis compliance firm Kind Financial. The decision marks a watershed moment for relations between legal marijuana and the traditional business world.

The move helps legitimize Kind Financial and its competitors while giving Microsoft an in with a new industry on the verge of exploding across the country. Kind Financial is based in Los Angeles and provides technology solutions that allow cannabis businesses to track their product from seed to sale.

The company was already a commercial client of Microsoft’s Azure cloud service and will now move up to Azure Government, a specialty platform for businesses that interact with the federal government. Federal law still bars marijuana for any use.

“Thanks to Microsoft’s huge reach, it’ll be easier for us to target every state with our compliance solutions,” said David Dinenberg, Kind Financial’s executive director. “It’s a win-win for both of us as more states look to legalize medical marijuana.”

Facilitating interaction with government agencies

A Microsoft official said Azure Government would better fit Kind’s needs in dealing with government agencies.

“Kind agreed that Azure Government is the only cloud platform designed to meet government standards for the closely regulated cannabis compliance programs, and we look forward to working together to help our government customers launch successful regulatory programs,” said Kimberly Nelson, executive director of Microsoft’s state and local government solutions division.

Microsoft Sign
Microsoft is shifting its business model in new directions.

The plan helps Kind and Microsoft in different ways. Kind will gain access to other legitimate players in marijuana commerce, including government agencies and other businesses. Microsoft, meanwhile, is following through on the promises of CEO Satya Nadella to expand cloud services and move the software giant away from a business model that has not aged well.

Mutually beneficial

Legal cannabis, with its huge growth potential, offers Microsoft a chance to beat competitors to a new market. The Kind announcement follows news that Microsoft would spend $26 billion to buy the professional networking site LinkedIn. In both cases, Microsoft wants to put its products in the hands of new consumers – Microsoft Office in the case of LinkedIn, Azure in the case of Kind.

Marijuana is legal for any use in four states and the District of Columbia, while medical cannabis is allowed in another 21 states. Legal sales of the drug hit $5.7 billion in 2016 and are expected to reach $22 billion by 2020, according to New Frontier, a cannabis industry analytics firm.

“Its undeniable that Microsoft’s interest in this industry shows we are maturing,” said New Frontier’s chief executive, Giadha DeCarcer. “Not only will the perception of companies in the cannabis space improve externally as a result of this news, but it’ll also mean that everyone from mom and pop businesses to sophisticated multinationals will see their opportunities improve.”

Kind’s inclusion on Azure Government doesn’t mean its dealings with the government will be any easier, however. Federal cannabis law is in limbo, with statute books prohibiting the drug for any use but Congress and the White House moving toward a hands-off approach.

California will play host to one of the nation’s largest gatherings of marijuana entrepreneurs and industry insiders in June.

National Cannabis Industry Association LogoThe 2016 Cannabis Business Summit and Expo runs from June 20 to 22 at the Marriott City Center in Oakland, where it’s expected to draw thousands of business owners, speakers, and marketers. Part networking opportunity, part seminar, and part sales floor, the Expo is billed by its organizers as the “ONLY national event where you will have an opportunity to meet with policy makers and influencers as they converge with the leading trade association shaping the cannabis economy.”

The Expo arrives in California in the midst of a political campaign to legalize marijuana for recreational use. If the push succeeds, it would make the Golden State the world’s largest market for legal pot. The initiative is all but guaranteed to appear on the ballot Nov. 8, and recent polls suggest it’s likely to pass.

That makes the Expo an important chance for industry players to position themselves and their businesses in advance of the coming green rush. Organizers say the event provides “the highest concentration of legitimate buyers and sellers all in one place.”

Attended by industry’s leading players

Offerings include more than 30 seminars and 75 speakers, including Harborside Health Center owner and media figure Steve De Angelo, Marijuana Policy Project executive director Rob Kampia, and California Lt. Gov. Gavin Newsom.

marijuana jointThe roster of speakers includes many of the people who are most active in the legalization movement. That campaign is led by tech billionaire and former Facebook president Sean Parker, who has already raised more than $2 million to the opposition’s $60,000. Many of the Expo’s participants will be there in hopes of profiting from legalization when it comes.

More than 100 exhibitors will pack the floor of the Expo for three days, marketing products and services ranging from grow lights and cannabis containers to industry accountants and consultants. Most are ancillary businesses and don’t actually grow or sell marijuana.

Furthering cannabis policy reform

The National Cannabis Industry Association, the only major trade group for legal marijuana businesses, has sponsored the Expo every year since 2014. The event serves as a chance for industry players to interact, form business relationships, and sell their brands while furthering the cause of cannabis policy reform.

But the Expo isn’t public, and it isn’t about smoking pot. It’s a professionals-only gathering, and tickets are sold to businesses in blocks for up to $700.

A recent poll showed support for legalization in California is hovering around 60 percent, making it likely the idea will pass at the ballot box. Marijuana is already allowed for medical use, and the Golden State currently provides the better part of the pot supply in the United States.

Do you work in the marijuana industry? Have you ever attended a professional cannabis expo? Leave a comment and let us know.


Authorities in Seattle have launched an enforcement campaign to punish illegal marijuana delivery services that operate in the city.

Marijuana Delivery TruckSeattle City Attorney Pete Holmes said in May that his office had filed criminal charges against eight people the month before after determining they were illegally selling cannabis by way of delivery services. Marijuana is legal for both medicine and recreation in Washington, but delivery services are prohibited.

The eight defendants were charged with engaging in a cannabis business without the necessary business licenses required by the city’s municipal code, Holmes said. The ordinance, passed by the Seattle City Council last year, levies misdemeanor penalties of up to 90 days in jail and $1,000 in fines for criminal violations.

Washington voters legalized marijuana in November 2012, making theirs one of the first two states to do so (the other was Colorado). Two others, Alaska and Oregon, have since followed suit, as has the District of Columbia. More than a dozen more states could vote to legalize in November, including California.

Seeking rules to regulated delivery businesses

Earlier in 2016, Homes joined Seattle Mayor Edward Murray in asking the Washington Legislature to allow licenses and regulations permitting marijuana delivery services. But they also said they would crack down on illegal, unlicensed services in the city and force them to close immediately.

Lawmakers failed to act on the suggestion by Murray and Holmes during this year’s legislative session, but Holmes has continued to push for new laws to allow delivery licenses and regulations. Until then, he says, he will keep pushing criminal enforcement against services that operate illegally, saying they unfairly compete with licensed marijuana retailers operating throughout the city.

State and local officials have licensed 32 pot shops to sell cannabis in Seattle. Though delivery has always been illegal in Washington, they remain very popular. Many allow customers to place orders by mobile apps and wait for their marijuana at home.

Reducing racial discrimination

Allowing the businesses could make life much easier for consumers. But it could also cut down on racial discrimination by reducing disparities in marijuana arrest rates stemming from delivery services. Still, Homes said, it’s only fair to demand all providers operate by the same rules.

“Prohibition disproportionately impacted communities of color while doing little to address the harms caused by the illegal drug trade,” Holmes said. “But licensed businesses that play by the rules and pay their taxes deserve protection from criminal enterprises.”

No state officially allows delivery services, though they are common in many places – especially Washington and California. They are also hard to police, as law enforcement has no way of knowing when and where deliveries will be made. At the same time, carrying cannabis and cash on delivery routes can be dangerous for drivers who are not protected by the law.


The owners of a California medical marijuana business are trying to rebuild after police raided them and seized almost $1.5 million in cash and assets.

Med-West CEO James Slatic
Med-West CEO James Slatic

Local cops raided Med-West Distribution, a San Diego company that makes hash oil cartridges for medicinal use, in January after receiving a tip that the business was manufacturing and distributing the oil illegally. Two dozen officers armed with assault rifles stormed into the company’s offices Jan. 28 and detained two employees.

Med-West CEO James Slatic says San Diego police seized a large share of his company’s assets, including hash oil, hard drives, and more than $300,000 in cash. Cops also froze Slatic’s personal bank accounts – and those of his wife and daughters.

Medical marijuana has been legal in California since 1996, but local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies have long targeted businesses there despite repeated orders from President Obama not to do so. The state is expected to legalize the drug for any adult use in November.

Part of the responsible marijuana industry

Slatic says he was stunned by the raid, which came after six years without police complaints. He is a prominent member of the state’s marijuana industry, serving on the boards of the Marijuana Policy Project and California Cannabis Industry Association.

“We just thought that we were part of the responsible marijuana industry,” Slatic said.

According to police, Med-West was using an illegal method to make hash oil and was selling it for commercial use in violation of the state’s medical cannabis laws. But four months after the raid, prosecutors have yet to file criminal charges, and none of the seized property has been returned, a common fact under California’s civil forfeiture laws.

“It seems like money is guilty until proven innocent in our system,” Slatic said.

Watch Med-West’s Indiegogo campaign video below.

Punishing those contributing to the industry

hash oilAmanda Reigman of the Drug Policy Alliance complained that the January raid is part of a larger effort to kill medical marijuana in California by punishing what she described as the industry’s good actors.

“It’s draining them of their ability to be a sustainable business,” Reigman said.

Slatic has no way to pay his employees and was forced to close his business and sell its headquarters. He is working to rebuild the company but promises he “absolutely” will not reopen in San Diego. Police there, he says, have long had it in for honest cannabis providers.

Increasing acceptable of medical marijuana

The city is one of the few large communities in California that is bucking a trend toward greater acceptance of legal medicinal marijuana. Gov. Jerry Brown signed legislation last year designed to create tight new regulations that will allow officials to keep better control of what was long viewed as a lawless industry.

The new rules are part of a general trend toward greater acceptance of a reality voters passed into law 20 years ago. But police and prosecutors in San Diego have yet to get the message. The city is in the midst of an extended crackdown against its many pot shops.

“Cases like the one against Med-West in San Diego should be dropped and prosecutors should instead use their resources against murderers, rapists, robbers and terrorists,” said U.S. Rep. Dana Rohrabacher, a California Democrat.


Legal marijuana has been a boon to many small Colorado communities. But it has not come without its share of problems.

On the one hand, cannabis legalization has brought gobs of cash to struggling towns, cities, and counties scattered throughout the mostly rural state. On the other, it has brought big costs as well.

Jason Warf, who leads an industry trade group, the Southern Colorado Cannabis Council, says legal cannabis has revitalized small towns that were drying up without tax revenue. Businesses were closing, potholes were going unfilled, and public services were suffering.

Marijuana legalization generates jobs

Glenwood Springs Colorado“It creates jobs that just aren’t there or replaces jobs that are about to be lost,” Warf said.

Still, legalization can put a strain on local governments. In many places, community leaders can’t keep up with applications for new licenses or keep track of the new businesses that open every day.

Legal weed has “definitely been a tap on our resources,” said Stephanie Carlile, deputy city clerk in Englewood, Colo. “We’re a smaller municipality. We’ve been stumbling through.”

Carlile joined other local leaders in sharing the ups and downs of legalization at a conference in Denver in May. Many of those stories were hopeful, but they also carried a note of caution.

Englewood is a small bedroom suburb of Denver that allows medical but not recreational pot. That made it all the more surprising to city officials when they learned last year that an illegal cannabis club was doing business in their community. The club had opened its doors after Denver cracked down on such businesses, and Englewood wasn’t even aware it was there.

Marijuana Store Pot ShopThe shop was still open in May, but the Englewood City Council was debating an ordinance to shut it down. Carlile said the club caught the attention of city officials when they noticed stoners on the street with “huge” bongs, as well as parking snarls and problems with club staff toking on the job.

Officials burdened with processing licenses

The burden of legal marijuana can fall particularly heavy on the officials tasked with processing licenses. In the small mountain town of Clear Creek, Colo., a single paralegal in the county attorney’s office is responsible for that job, which can be overwhelming at times. While the state handles the general licenses that allow pot shops to operate, local communities process their own permits and regulations.

Marijuana has benefits for Clear Creek and its taxpayers. Legal shops dot Interstate 70 as it runs through sparsely populated Clear Creek County, where skiers and hikers mix cannabis and tourism. The money they bring in helps pay for needed services, and other forms of agriculture can’t deliver the same payoffs.

Clear Creek also recently lost a local mine that provided most of the community’s tax dollars. And the marijuana industry, though growing, is still small enough that local officials feel they can keep an eye on it. But that, they said, could change as cannabis sales boom.

As with most other things related to legal weed in Colorado, only time will tell.


A fatal shooting in Colorado two years ago has led to what may be the first wrongful death lawsuit involving recreational marijuana.

Richard KirkThe suit was filed by the family of a woman shot to death in April 2014 by her husband, who later told police he was high on cannabis candy at the time of the shooting. Richard Kirk bought the candy at a Colorado dispensary, and the family of his wife, Kristine Kirk, say the company that made the edibles failed to warn him about its potency and potential side effects – including psychosis.

Kristine Kirk called 911 hours after Richard Kirk bought the candy from a Denver pot shop, telling police he was ranting about the end of the world and jumping out of windows in their home. He then shot her within hearing range of their three young sons. The youngest saw her die.

Lawsuit against edible companies

Richard Kirk already faces first-degree murder charges, but the lawsuit says the people who made and sold the candy should be held liable for civil damages in Kristine Kirk’s death. The plaintiffs include Wayne and Marti Kohnke, her parents, and her sister, Tamara Heman, all acting on behalf of the children.

“While nothing can bring their parents back, this lawsuit will seek justice and change in an edible industry that is growing so fast it failed these young kids,” the family’s lawyers, Greg Gold and David Olivas, said in a press release. “Edibles themselves are not the evil, it is the failure to warn, the failure to properly dose, the failure to tell the consumer how to safely use edibles, that is the evil.”

The candy Richard Kirk ate was labeled “Karma Kandy Orange Ginger,” and the remaining contents of the package were found at his home after the shooting. The candy contained about 100 milligrams of THC in blocks of 10 milligrams. Doses of 100 milligrams can be disorienting for many users, though there is no scientific evidence linking THC with murder.

Edible manufacturers, distributors allegedly failed to provide usage warnings

Marijuana edibles linked to deaths in ColoradoThe candy was made by Gaia’s Garden LLC and sold by Nutritional Elements Inc. Both companies are named as defendants in the lawsuit, which claims they failed to provide warnings about “known side effects,” allegedly including hallucinations, paranoia, and other forms of psychosis.

The companies “negligently, recklessly and purposefully concealed vital dosage and labeling information from their actual and prospective purchasers, including Kirk, in order to make a profit,” the lawsuit says.

A lawyer for Gaia’s Garden said his clients have always followed the state regulations that govern labeling and packaging of cannabis products. Those rules were tightened following the shooting and the suicide of another edibles user in Denver the same year.

“We will vigorously defend ourselves against this attempt to shift responsibility away from the murderer to a substance that is less harmful than alcohol and does not lead to violence,” Sean McAllister said.

John Fritzel was doing very well in the mid 2000s. He ran a Subway restaurant franchise, he had a soaring real estate business, and his finances were booming.

John FritzelAnd then, in 2008, it all came crumbling down. He filed for bankruptcy following a string of losses that dovetailed with the massive financial crash at the end of the Bush administration. Business and life didn’t look especially promising for Fritzel.

But over the next few years, and with the benefit of legalization, that changed. After another failed effort, this time in baby products, Fritzel made a leap to something that finally stuck: legal marijuana. His new company, LivWell Enlightened Health, is already expanding to other states where cannabis has been legalized for recreational use.

“The music just stopped and there weren’t any more chairs,” he said.

Fritzel declared bankruptcy aged 35

By the time he declared bankruptcy, he was just 35 and owned roughly $1.2 million in real estate assets. He also owed more than $9.2 million, the cost of huge loans and business obligations stretched across more than 30 companies. He had no cash left in his own bank account.

“After going bankrupt, there were pretty big battle scars,” he said. “It was the best thing that ever happened to me. Being so dependent on market forces was something I just couldn’t do again.”

So Fritzel joined with two fellow real estate brokers, Steve Brooks and Thomas Van Alsburg, who were also close friends, and launched a medical marijuana dispensary in 2010: Heartland Pharmacy of Denver. They have since changed the name to Lightshade Labs.

“It was either that or get a job, which for me is not an option since I don’t handle authority too well,” he said. “My retail background in Subway and its structured franchise was great training.”

Cash flow issues followed launch of MJ business

Pot ShopBut the move wasn’t easy by any stretch. Fritzel and his friends quickly discovered that cash didn’t flow as abundantly as industry gossip had promised. Their success came from hard work – exactly the kind of hard work that led to his earlier victories in the restaurant and real estate industries.

That work included 16-hour days, plus a cheap ad that drew in 300 customers the same day it ran, customers who spent more than $5,000 on marijuana. Soon the business partners opened a second shop and bought out one of their earliest investors. That gave them a major ownership stake in their own business.

“It just mushroomed out after that,” Fritzel said.

But he soon lost as much as he had gained. His family opposed his profession and disowned him, he said. They are successful real estate brokers in Iowa and Denver, and he has little to do with them anymore.

“My involvement in this business is completely unacceptable to my parents, to the point that they have disowned me and do not speak to me because of it,” he said. “No matter what position or explanation I give them, they view me as a drug dealer. Period.”

Fritzel’s business continues to grow

That hasn’t stopped his rise, however. He now co-owns four Denver marijuana businesses: Lightshade Labs, Buddy Boy, PotCo, and MJardin. He has a controlling interest in 32 Denver licenses for legal weed companies.

The shops employ roughly 400 people, a number that could grow to 1,000 by the start of 2017. “There’s no reason,” Fritzel said, that he and his partners shouldn’t be able to bring in at least $250 million in sales by 2018 if other states pass legalization in November.

“It’s a billion dollar market whether I’m here or not,” he said. “If it’s not me, then it would be someone else.”


Want marijuana? How about some juice instead?

marijuana delivery truckCannabis has been legal in the District of Columbia since voters made it so in the 2014 election. It’s legal to possess it, it’s legal to use it, and it’s legal to give it away.

Sadly, though, it remains verboten to buy or sell the stuff. That’s because a fickle Republican Congress refuses to lift a federal ban on retail pot shops in Washington, D.C. But no worries: Just order juice.

The District has seen cannabis delivery services before, most of which have ended badly. But the owners of a new business think they’ve found a way to get around those pesky anti-marijuana laws.

The company is called HighSpeed, and the idea behind it is simple, if also a little complicated. All you have to do is order some juice, and it’s on its way. Also, you’ll get marijuana.

Get free marijuana with your juice

This approach is legal, according to HighSpeed and, apparently, its lawyers. How, you ask? It’s because it remains legal to gift cannabis in small amounts within District limits. What you’re paying for, they insist, is juice – even if you’re getting some weed on the side.

Just go to the HighSpeed website and order some “pressed” juice. Try “just juice,” for example, and you’ll get the flavor of your choice, plus roughly a gram of randomly selected cannabis. Buy “love” and you can expect juice and an eighth. “Lots of love” will get you juice and “slightly” more than an eighth.

The business is already popular. As of early April, the site explained that HighSpeed was “out of stock!” There was more product being “cured,” the company promised, without saying whether that meant the cannabis or the juice.

But order from HighSpeed and you’ll definitely be paying for the pot, not the fruity beverages. “Just juice” run $11 for a gram, while an eighth of “love” sells for $55, an increase of $44 for essentially the same amount of juice. “Lots of love” costs a whopping $150, and while HighSpeed is vague about the quantity of marijuana that comes with that order, the price suggests it’s about half an ounce. The juice, the owners promise, is “really, really good.”

Lawyers insist the model is legal

HighSpeed JuiceCompany spokeswoman Rachel Bor said HighSpeed has run its business model past company lawyers, who say it’s legal. That remains to be seen, as District police and federal prosecutors may take a dim view of the service.

A similar scheme ran into legal trouble early this year, when two District dealers known as the Gods of Kush were busted for “giving” marijuana away in exchange for “donations” to support their political “cause.” Prosecutors said they didn’t buy it.

HighSpeed is quite a bit more clever than the Gods of Kush, but only time will tell if their new delivery service will get away with it. In the meantime, pass the juice.


Legal marijuana is one of the fastest growing industries in the United States, with expansion of more than $1 billion between 2014 and 2015, according to data released in April.

Pot ShopThe numbers come from New Frontier, a company that tracks cannabis sales and industry statistics, and ArcView Market Research, which publishes market projections and other information on commercial marijuana. The two groups released the fourth edition of their State of Legal Marijuana Markets Report in early April.

The report found a compound growth rate of 31 percent between 2014 and 2015, an unusually high number for American industry. Nationwide cannabis sales grew from $4.6 billion to $5.7 billion in that time, the two groups reported.

Colorado driving the boom

The boom has been especially pronounced in Colorado, which saw a 93 percent jump in sales, according to the data. The state’s legal pot market is expected to grow by another $500 million by the end of this year, reaching more than $1.5 billion per year.

“Colorado is the most advanced cannabis market in the country,” New Frontier founder and CEO Giadha DeCarcer wrote in the study. “The state has been a case study for other jurisdictions debating if and how to legalize cannabis. Colorado’s refinement of their marijuana business regulations have helped to push the state’s legal cannabis market past the $1 billion mark.”

ArcView CEO Troy Dayton added: “By 2016, Colorado will account for 21% of the total U.S. market for cannabis. Demand has been strongly fueled by residents and tourists and will continue to do so with the growth of the canna-tourism market. Nearly half of the state’s visitors chose Colorado as their destination, in part, because of the cannabis market.”

There are several factors driving the explosion in the marijuana market, according to the report. The biggest is the rate of cannabis use in Colorado. The state has the highest use rate in America, according to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration, though those numbers conflict with other sources.

Colorado’s thriving marijuana tourism industry

ColoradoPopulation growth has also played an important role. Between 2010 and 2015, Colorado’s population grew faster than the populations of all but three other states. Roughly 250,000 people moved to the Centennial State from other places, a large number of them Millennials.

Another critical element of the industry’s growth is strong tourism demand. Colorado, with its mountain scenery, skiing, and legal cannabis, is one of the most popular states in the country. More than 8 percent of the 71 million people who visited between 2014 and 2015 stopped by a pot shop.

Finally, demand for non-bud cannabis remains strong. Hash oil and concentrates, edibles, topicals, and other THC-laced products command higher prices than typical marijuana flower.

The Legal Marijuana Markets Report can be downloaded at, but it’s not cheap. The cost of the full study, including detailed data reports, is about $500.